What are solar panels and how do they work: What to know

You’ve probably heard of the term “self-consumption.” The primary function of photovoltaic solar panels is to convert sunlight into electricity.

Continue reading this article if you want to learn how a solar panel works in general. We hope you find it helpful in strengthening your conceptual foundations.

What are the components of a photovoltaic panel?

First and foremost, it is critical to understand the various solar panel nomenclatures. The following are some examples of solar panel names:

  • A solar array.
  • A photovoltaic panel is a device that converts sunlight into electricity.
  • A photovoltaic (PV) panel.
  • Solar panel with photovoltaic technology.
  • and so on.

All of the phrases previously listed are used to refer to a solar panels types. You can pick the one that best meets your preferences, but keep in mind that there is a distinction.

The truth is that there are two types of solar panels in the classification of solar panels:

  1. Solar Thermal Panels (or thermal sensors): They are ones that are distinguished by the fact that they heat the water.
  2. Solar panels with photovoltaic technology: They are distinguished by the fact that they generate power.

We’ll discuss about photovoltaic solar panels in particular. As previously said, its primary attribute is that they are utilized to generate energy from sunlight.

After reading this short article, you should have a good understanding of how photovoltaic solar panels function, at least in broad terms. Photovoltaic generators, such as those used in a photovoltaic self-consumption system, are in charge of turning sunlight into electrical energy. It is necessary to comprehend the photoelectric effect in order to comprehend how this conversion is carried out.

The photoelectric effect occurs when a surface is subjected to electromagnetic radiation over a particular threshold frequency and emits electrons. For alkali metals, this electromagnetic radiation is classified as invisible light, near ultraviolet for other metals, and vacuum ultraviolet for nonmetals. In a nutshell, the photoelectric effect is based on a material or surface emitting electrons (e–) when electromagnetic radiation impacts it.

The solar cell, which is basically formed of silicon, is the surface exposed to radiation in the photovoltaic effect.

As you may be aware, the electrical current in a closed circuit remains constant, therefore the electrical energy generated in that closed circuit will be distributed to charging or consuming devices such as telephones, appliances, batteries, and so on.

The consumer element would be a resistor with a value R (in Ohms), as shown in the diagram, and the power dissipated in the resistor would be the product of the current flowing through it (I) times the potential difference, or voltage, between its poles.

The cell is the source of both voltage and current. As a result, P = I x V would be the formula.

Of course, there are a number of important aspects to consider when purchasing a solar panel. At the same time, it has more components, such as the frame, backsheet, and solar panel tedlar.

Anyway, let’s delve a little deeper into this.

As previously stated, the primary function of photovoltaic solar panels is to convert the energy of sunlight into electrical energy.

It is based on the conversion of solar light in the form of radiation (particles known as photons) into electricity. The photovoltaic conversion effect, or Photovoltaic Effect, is a term used to describe this phenomenon.

In a nutshell, this is how photovoltaic solar panels function in a grid-connected self-consumption system:

  1. Photons fall on the photovoltaic plate as a result of solar radiation.
  2. The photovoltaic panel’s cells convert solar radiation (photons) into electricity (in direct current).
  3. The DC current is fed into a solar inverter, which converts it to alternating current (AC). At 120 or 240 volts, we use alternating current (AC) to power any electrical device.
  4. Our house’s connection box is where the alternating current (AC) is introduced.
  5. As a result, electricity is distributed continuously in accordance with the amount of consumption required in the residence.